Metformin is a medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes and to prevent type 2 diabetes if you are at high risk of developing it. Metformin is used in the action of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), while it is not formally accepted for the treatment of PCOS. Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which the body does not produce enough insulin or the insulin it produces does not work properly. This can cause high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia). Metformin overdose is rare but can be serious. Case reports and small case cycle of serious toxicity from metformin overeat can be found in the medical prose, often describing extracorporeal treatments for subsequent severe lactic acidosis.
During overdose situations, lactic acidosis is greatly more general, although the accurate incidence of occurrence is unclear. Lactic acidosis was observed in 1.6% of cases of metformin exposure reported to poison control centers; however, only 10% of these contacts were due to intentional overdose.
Signs and symptoms of a metformin overdose
Metformin overdose associated with lactic acidosis presents with nonspecific symptoms and includes severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and epigastric pain, and thirst, loss of appetite, lethargy, and hyperpnea. Hypotension, hypothermia, acute renal failure, coma, and cardiac arrest are also important clinical signs. The predictable death rate from metformin-associated lactic acidosis is between 30% and 50%, but can be as high as 80%. This condition most often occurs in patients with serious co morbidities (mainly renal failure). Mortality is not fully correlated with either metformin or lactate levels.
Hyperglycemia associated with metformin overdose has occasionally been reported, although less frequently than hypoglycemia. Such hyperglycemia has been linked with sharp pancreatitis in numerous cases of metformin toxicity due to together therapeutic dosing and deliberate overdose. Another potential complication is an increased gap (without exposure to toxic alcohols).
What is an endocrinologist?
An endocrinologist concentrates in diagnosing and treating hormonal imbalances, diabetes and other problems with your body’s endocrine glands. The endocrine glands include the thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes, hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. An endocrinologist is a diabetes specialist but is also responsible for the complex medical needs of adults with a myriad of other endocrine, metabolic, or glandular diseases that often affect many systems in the body.
Who should see an endocrinologist?
In most cases, people visit an endocrinologist when they are referred to by an attending physician. The aim of the direction is expert diagnosis or treatment of endocrine problems. However, an endocrinologist is not a surgeon. If you need surgery, an endocrinologist will refer you to a surgeon. If you require ongoing treatment for an endocrine disorder, your endocrinologist will tell you whether you should continue to see him or her or return to your healthcare provider. In general, your healthcare provider can treat and manage uncomplicated hormonal imbalances. For more complex hormonal conditions, your endocrinologist will likely continue treatment.
What does an endocrinologist treat?
An endocrinologist treats conditions and diseases that are associated with hormonal imbalances or other problems with your body’s endocrine glands. Hormones act as chemical messengers in your body. Because of this, hormone or glandular problems affect many systems in your body and are often linked.
What procedures and treatment does an endocrinologist perform?
Endocrinologists prescribe or perform various procedures and treatments to control hormonal conditions. If you require surgery, the endocrinologist will pass on you to a specific surgeon or a particular surgeon, depending on your situation.
Endocrinologist diabetes is predominantly outpatient specialties, but some patients require hospitalization for complex examinations or treatment of complications. In addition, at least 15% of hospital inpatients suffer from diabetes mellitus or other endocrine diseases.
Easy Exercises for Knee Joint Physiotherapy
Arthritis strikes millions of people worldwide. The most common kinds are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which often lead to knee pain, making knee joint physiotherapy necessary.
Exercising an arthritic knee may seem illogical, but daily exercise can actually reduce and even ease arthritis pain and its symptoms, including stiffness and swelling.
Several reasons to exercise with knee arthritis are:
- It maintains the joint’s full range of motion.
- It reinforces the muscles that support the joint.
- Strong muscles can absorb joint shocks better.
Knee joint physiotherapy does not have to be challenging to be beneficial. Gentle and low-impact exercises are best for knee arthritis. They lessen stress on the joints as they improve their flexibility and strength.
Exercising at Home or Work
The best knee exercises are the ones you can do at home or during a break at work because they give you instant relief without going to the physio clinic. These exercises are easy, effective, and convenient and do not need any special gear.
Do them gently and steadily increase the number of repetitions as your muscles get more powerful. Afterward, do a few gentle stretching exercises to prevent your muscles from cramping. Consider exercising your knees every alternate day to give sore muscles a rest. Following are some of the knee joint physiotherapy exercises that you can do at home:
Leg Raise while Lying
- Lie flat on your back with your arms at your sides and toes up.
- Keep your leg straight as you tighten your leg muscles, and slowly lift one leg several inches.
- Contract your stomach muscles to push your lower back down.
- Hold this position and count to 5, then lower your leg slowly.
- Repeat this 5 to 6 times, then switch to the other leg.
It is better that you start with one set of four for each leg. This exercise strengthens the quadriceps, the large muscles on the fronts of your thighs that connect to your knee joints. It is why this exercise works well to ease knee pain.
Hamstring Stretch while Lying
- Lie on the floor or bed and bent both your legs.
- Slowly lift one leg in a bent position, and bring your knee back toward your chest.
- Now, link your hands behind your thigh and straighten your leg. Make sure that your hands are at the back of your thigh, not your knee.
- Pull your straight leg back toward your head till you can feel the stretch.
- Hold this position for 30 to 60 seconds, gently bend your knee and lower your leg back to the floor.
You should perform the stretch one time on each leg. This exercise is effective because it stretches and strengthens your hamstrings, easing the pain.
- Stand with your feet apart at the distance of your shoulders and stretch your arms out in front of you.
- Gradually bend your knees until you are in a half-sitting position. If necessary, hold on to a chair for balance.
- Keep your back straight and chest lifted. Make sure you are not leaning forward.
- Keep your feet flat on the floor, then hold the position for 5 seconds. Afterward, slowly stand back up.
You will not feel any pain performing this exercise. Repeat this 10 times and gradually work up to 3 sets of 10. It is an effective exercise as it strengthens the muscles on the fronts and backs of your thighs, along with the gluteus.
- Stand between two chairs and hold them for balance.
- Lift one leg at 12 inches and hold it in front of you.
- Keeping your back straight, bend the other leg and lower your body a few inches as if you were about to sit on a chair. Remember not to cross the lifted leg in front of the bent leg.
- Hold this position for 5 seconds and straighten back up.
- Repeat and switch legs.
You should start with one set of 4 leg dips, then gradually work your way to 3 sets. It is an effective exercise for strengthening the muscles on the fronts and backs of your thighs, as well as your buttocks.
- Sit on the floor with both legs straight. Support yourself with your hands on either side of your hips, keeping your back straight.
- Gradually bend one knee until it feels stretched, but not until it becomes painful.
- Hold this position for 5 seconds, then slowly straighten your leg out as far as possible, again holding for another 5 seconds.
Repeat and switch legs when one leg becomes tired. It would be more effective if you repeated it 10 times. It will strengthen the quadriceps.
Before and After Exercise
Always remember to put a moist-heat pack on your arthritic knee for 20 minutes before exercising. It is because heat is soothing, and it also brings blood to the surface. This results in the decrease of stiffness and sometimes relieves pain.
You can also take prescribed pain medications 45 minutes before your physiotherapy to help control the pain. Put an ice pack on the sore knee for 10 to 15 minutes after you are done to help bring down any swelling. To consult the best Physiotherapist in Islamabad visit MARHAM.PK.
Everything you need to know about Kybella
When it comes to fat reduction treatments, there are a diverse set of solutions designed to handle excess fat in the most inconvenient areas. One of these areas is the area under the chin and jaw, where fat accumulates and creates the infamous double chin. We have all seen them pop up in group photos and selfies. It does not seem like a big deal at first but once you start seeing it in every photo that you’re in, it can become distracting and make you feel anxious about your own body.
But there are cosmetic solutions out there designed to make life a little easier in this regard. One of these is Kybella, a specialized fat reduction treatment meant to specifically handle the fat under the chin. As most people do not know much about the treatment it is up to veteran practitioners to inform us about what it is and what it does. From the average Kybella price that clinics charge for the treatment, to how it actually works and what the results will look like. This doctor has plenty of answers he wishes to share and we want to share them with you.
The doctor interviewed in this article, has been operating for years and has seen a recent rise in the popularity of Kybella. To get to the bottom of why this treatment is becoming so popular, we should first understand what it is and what it does.
I: Before we actually get into the details of Kybella and how it works, I wanted to know your opinion on why you believe that Kybella has recently become so popular.
D: I believe there are several factors at play. It’s not like one day everyone woke up and started thinking about the treatment. It is popular, sure, but it’s not something you would call “mainstream”. I think it came with the pandemic and with how people had more time to themselves as they did not have to go to work or didn’t have the opportunities to socialize. Staying at home you have more time to reflect on yourself and how you look. Not to mention how staying at home also means you’re physically less active, this ends up with more accumulated fat in uncomfortable areas. So while I can’t speak for everyone, I believe it is because of the more self-reflection that is currently happening in comparison to before the pandemic, as well as the extra fat that so many people have put on as they stayed at home.
I: How does Kybella help people in this regard?
D: The Kybella injections are designed to burn away excess fat in areas where the compound is injected. To be fair, currently, the Kybella compound is FDA approved to be used exclusively for double chin removals. But in theory, the treatment works in such a way that it is able to burn through fat regardless of where on the body it is. As the compound deteriorates the extra fat, the double chin slowly shrinks until you only have a smooth jawline and profile left. It helps people take control of their appearance and bring it closer to their ideal self-image.
I: What is this compound and how is it so effective at burning away fat?
D: The compound we inject during the Kybella procedures is a synthetic version of a stomach acid that is naturally produced by your body called the “deoxycholic acid”. Its entire purpose in your stomach is to break down the fat that you consume and help digest it. So if it can burn the fat that goes into the stomach, you would also think that it can burn fat in other areas of the body too. So, the synthetic version of this chemical is injected under the chin, and the fat is burned away. This obviously works a lot more slowly than I make it out to be, but the results are there and you can see how effective the treatment can be.
I: While I know that obviously everything during the procedure is under the full control of the doctors, what about any discomfort during the procedure or during the recovery? Do patients report having a hard time dealing with the physical side effects of the treatment?
D: Yes, there are some side effects that come with Kybella, as well as a few uncomfortable sensations that occur during the procedure and directly after it. Since the procedure involves burning away excess fat, there is going to be a hot sensation under the chin, which is completely normal. It can get a little uncomfortable, though in some rare cases patients do report that the burning began to hurt. But this does not happen as often and most patients make it through the procedure feeling fine. After the procedure, there are a few side effects that are quite common. Swelling, aching, and itchiness, but are generally mildly uncomfortable and can be easily dealt with using basic skincare products.
I: Let’s finish things off with something I know a lot of people would be interested to hear: what about the prices?
D: I cannot claim that Kybella or most other cosmetic treatments out there can be qualified as cheap, but nowadays most cosmetic treatments are widely available and you can get treated for a reasonable price. We strive to make our cosmetic treatments as accessible as possible to the local community. Our clinic does this by giving people the opportunity to try out the treatment without having to invest too much time or too many resources into it. It’s just a matter of looking through the options in your local area and finding a practitioner that is offering something that suits you both in terms of quality of service and price. If you do your research, I’m sure you can find everything you need for the perfect Kybella experience. You can obtain more information about Kybella treatment by exploring this site.
Is CBD an antidepressant?
CBD stands for cannabidiol which is a common active ingredient found in cannabis. It’s is also an essential part of medical marijuana. Apart from that hemp plant is the direct source of CBD, whether this hemp plant is said to be the cousin of marijuana. CBD itself is never known for high or abusive effects on the human body. That is why there isn’t any solid proof about the negative effects on those who eat pure CBD. Nowadays, CBD is getting high coverage in media. The reason behind its sudden popularity is its uses which we are going to discuss below.
Is it legal to use CBD?
In most parts of the US, you can directly obtain CBD, which means they have hemp plants. But CBD is still not straight legal in any state. All the 50states have their restrictions and laws about the usage of CBD. Due to legal issues, it was getting difficult to research CBD, which is why in 2015 its use was eased by FDA so the researchers could do trials easily. After a few years, a man named farm bill legalized the hemp plant to make it difficult to keep CBD illegal. Later than that CBD is very easy to buy; even you can buy it online.
Using CBD as antidepressants:
Depression and anxiety both are pathologies that can affect the human body in both aspects. It can easily destroy your health and social life at the same time. There are many types of research showing how useful it is to use CBD as an antidepressant. Apart from that, there are several more medical conditions in which CBD is useful. However, there aren’t any controlled clinical trials that can prove the use of CBD as an antidepressant. This means more focus is required to prove exact about CBD and its effects on a depressed person.
Is CBD safe or not?
As we all know, CBD is an effective medicine for depression and anxiety. But there are several side effects of using it, which may include fatigue, nausea. Or irritability. Long-time use of CBD can also make your extra blood thin in which a single and small cit can make you lose a lot of blood. It is also said that people taking a high dosage of CBD seems to have a lot of various related diseases. That’s why you need to take CBD exact amount that your doctor has prescribed. CBD isn’t sold as a medicine for users’ safety purposes, although it is given as a supplement. You will find CBD present in different forms in the market, including capsules, oils, patches, extracts, vapes, and all these products have their specific use. So never take any CBD supplements without a doctor’s consultant. Or you can also get it from a trusted CBD store.
CBD is a component taken from the plant and said to be effective if used by a depressed or person having anxiety. In past years, CBD wasn’t legal, but it was legalized and started to be sold as a supplement for research purposes. You can easily find CBD in different forms in which each product has its specific usage.
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